How many of us know the legend of burning at the stake of Giordano Bruno? One who ardently supported the heliocentric theory, despite the opposition of the Church who believed that the sun revolves around an Earth, called the center of the universe. And for that, he was burned at the stake by the evil exactly Inquisition in 1600. Here's how the Catholic Church and its instrument of torture, the Inquisition, was opposed to scientific progress, trying to keep the darkness of the Renaissance man. Stop! It's well-known story, that all schoolchildren are taught (and only them). But, as expected, school history and gives us a lot of lies and legends totally false. Because you know by now Giordano Bruno is a far cry from the truth ...
Strange Universe's spiritual vision of Giordano Bruno
But what is historical truth? Giordano Bruno, his real name, Fillipo was born in 1548 in the Italian city Nola, near Naples. He took the name Giordano, having joined the Dominican Order. Bruno's philosophy of life that sustains it in its main works (Della causa, principio ed uno ',' Dell 'Infinito Universo e dei Mondi "," The Architecture Compendiosa "" triple Minimo "," The Monad, Numero et Figure ") was a strange mixture consisting of elements Neoplatonism, materialistic monism, mysticism, rationalism and naturalism.
Giordano Bruno argued the following ideas: - That God is one and the same world (materialistic pantheism); - That matter and spirit, body and soul are two phases of the same substance; - That the universe is infinite, and behind the visible world is an infinity of worlds; - That the Earth has a soul, and that each part of it (the mineral kingdom, plant or animal) is animated; - That all souls are related, and thus is impossible transmigration.
Calvinists, Catholics deadly opponents, Giordano Bruno excommunicates him for disrespect
Of course these ideas quite strange, and other religious nature (looking at you God) drew attention to hatred against the Catholic Church. But if you believe that Giordano Bruno Catholic Church was just ugly, terribly deceived. In 1579 he came to Geneva, where it seems that he became Calvinist, embracing the Christian faith as a reformist, a fierce opponent of the papacy. But he did not reconcile well with the new religion, as he was excommunicated by the Council Calvinist, as a result of a disrespectful attitude towards the leaders of this church.
Giordano Bruno it offends the renowned professors from Oxford, which it believes are drunks
After being forced to leave Geneva after he lingered for several years and through France, where he also published several works, Giordano Bruno and reached London in 1584, the famous Oxford University. Since it seemed to be a great world figure, Bruno asked to take some courses in this prestigious school, but is refused. In retaliation, he published a small pamphlet entitled "Cena delle CENERI" in which he attacked the renowned professors from Oxford, about them saying that they know more about beer than about Greeks!
After becoming a Lutheran ... Giordano Bruno was again excommunicated because of his pride ... naughty!
After an unsuccessful attempt to reconcile with the Catholic Church arrives in Germany in 1587 where he became Bruno ... Lutheran! But Lutherans and to show him the same "full of impudence pride, being excommunicated by them soon Hemstadt.
The arrest and trial of Giordano Bruno
In 1591, Bruno comes to Venice, Mocenigo's invitation, which interest him in its system memory drive. Unable to obtain from Bruno secret "of its natural magic, Mocenigo denounced the Venetian Inquisition. In front of them, Bruno denied any errors and doubts as regards the Catholic doctrine.
Why Giordano Bruno stayed closed for six years without trial?
Meanwhile, the Italian philosopher and came under scrutiny by the Inquisition in Rome, who requested the extradition Venetian. After some hesitation, Bruno has been extradited to the authorities in Rome in February 1593, where it stayed closed for six years without trial at all. Historians have worked hard, but I have found absolutely no documentation to explain the delay in the trial of Giordano Bruno, the conditions under which a trial is conducted fairly quickly Inquisition.
Bruno was not condemned for the heliocentric theory!
In the spring of 1599, the beginning of his trial, and although the Roman Inquisition has given few chances to retract statements and doctrines spread, Giordano Bruno refused. He was sentenced in January 1600 and on 17 February 1600 was burned at the stake. However, Giordano Bruno was not executed because he claimed that the sun is fixed and that the earth revolves around it (as many of us believe), but to support theological doctrines incompatible with Catholic Church teachings, for example, that that Jesus Christ was not God, but only a magician, that the Holy Spirit is the soul of the world, the devil will be saved, etc..
Bruno heliocentrism could not be convicted, since that time he was not prohibited
That Bruno was not condemned for heliocentrism (but maybe played at most a minor role in his conviction) that emerges from the Catholic Church did not express an official position on this sentence until 1616, so 16 years after burning stake of Giordano Bruno. So in 1600, heliocentrism was not prohibited by the Church, so that Bruno would not have been convicted on a work which was not banned! The church did not have any official position to heliocentrism until 1616, when Paolo Antonio Foscarini (1565-1616) published a book that heliocentrism conflict with Scripture. In publishing this work, the Catholic Church was forced to take a position on the idea heliocentrism. However, even in 1616 heliocentrism was not sentenced by the Catholic Church, this coming year until 1664, when Pope Alexander VII took a bubble which banned all books that supported movement of the Earth.
Also an interesting fact to note is that one of his inquisitors Giordano Bruno was a Jesuit theologian Robert Bellarmine (1542-1621). It is later Cardinal Bellarmine (since 1616), who as head of his Collegium Romanum, was commissioned by Pope Paul V to examine ideas about heliocentrism Foscarini's book. In none of Bellarmine's writings about heliocentrism not mention any reference to the case of Giordano Bruno, which took place 16 years earlier.
Giordano Bruno was not an astronomer, but a philosopher! So why the fuss as he struggles because he claimed that the earth revolves around the sun?
What surprises most about the story of burning at the stake of Giordano Bruno is that he was portrayed as a "martyr of free thought, as a proponent of the modern vision of the universe, as a symbol of intolerance towards the new scientific ideas (like those of heliocentrism). But many do not realize is that Giordano Bruno, in his work, little to do with astronomy. Bruno did was not an astronomer, but a philosopher. In one of his major works 'Dell' Infinito Universo e dei Mondi ", ie" On the infinite universe and other worlds, the focus is not the heliocentric system, but of pantheism (the theological doctrine that concerned him very much) . Heliocentrism was nothing more than material support to support the thesis about pantheism.
Bruno has bet on the winning horse!
Bruno was indeed a brilliant philosopher, but at the same time, he was also cantankerous and self-destructive. In his writings can not find anything new that may have contributed to the progress of astronomy. In addition, those who advocated the claim that Bruno was extraterrestrial life (in his work "On the infinite universe and other worlds") will be very disappointed that the Italian philosopher did not bring too many ideas in this regard, through the pages of his work. But Giordano Bruno betting on horse winner, due to stubbornness and gâlcevii turned his "martyr unwillingly" and became a sort of hero of science, rather than a mere footnote in a book of Renaissance Philosophy .
History is funny like that!...