Stems from a dualistic conception which assumes a distance between God and world, between the seen and unseen, between spirit and matter, modern man has come to believe again, as seen on St. Athanasius the Great Fall, as there is only what ii is accessible through the senses and satisfies the desires (cf. word against the Greeks, VIII. For him, the world's raw material, devoid of meaning and spiritual depth, the space in which to exercise his dominance. Far God, man value reached unspeakable and ignore the authentic meaning of the world, seeking to impose his technique and an artificial rationality corresponding crooked his obvious intention to build by own power, an earthly paradise. In these circumstances, observed Yannaras Christ, "which we call "progress" and "D" proved to be rape and destruction of nature and man being a constant threat of death (...) "(Primer of faith. Introduction to Orthodox Theology, Bucharest, 1996, p. 70).
Ecological crisis caused by irrational human behavior can not solve than the transfiguration was this view from the perspective of divine revelation that reveals internal rationality and the value of the world, the divine sense.
In this context, reinterpreting Biblical wagging revealed - discredited by his understanding of cosmological models based on outdated - from a contemporary perspective it is urgent to initiate a new dialogue between the Church of Christ and nourished civilization with scientific theories of our time. This paper also aims to outline a possible reinterpretations.
Some cosmological patterns
This enterprise can not only begin by describing the cosmological conception of the perspective of Orthodox theology interprets the Bible about Cosmogenesis and the giving of that claim. Comparison with other cosmological systems is therefore welcome.
Saint John Chrysostom said that "some not allow this world to have a creator, others say that the world and the world would have made for themselves, finally, others say that all things were made from a preexisting material "(Homilies on Genesis, VII, 4). Reducible representations of the world's diversity of three basic patterns, each with important consequences for spirituality and civilization, precisely to the human relationship with the world, which we will call pantheistic cosmology, and cosmology panenteista dualistic cosmology.
Cosmology pantheistic Eastern religions, high specific, based on the premise that confusion between God and the world, considering the latter one being coetema with God and thus divine essence. Pantheism knows, in turn, two types or accents: acosmismul (expressed by "all is God), which denies the world, reducing it to the status of apparent manifestation of God, and pancosmismul (expressed as" God is all "), whom they deny God, considering the world as the ultimate reality. In modern philosophy, this pattern cosmological beyond pantheism of Spinoza said, is called monism (only one is a reality or essence of reality), the two accents recalled becoming idealism (the world's only spirit) and, respectively, materialism (the world's matters only). Much disputed scientist and theologian, Pierre Teilhard de Chardin, describes the tension in the very bosom of the scientific community, beyond the act, on the one hand, that science, even if he tried for a while, has not managed to get rid of metaphysics and, on the other hand the issue of ratio between spirit and matter will always be a difficulty. Verbatim Chardin says that "the scientific, materialistic strife between Spiritualists always lasts between deterministic and finalists. After a century of dispute, each party remains on the opponent's positions and shows his good reasons for this constancy" (The Phenomenal humaine, Editioris du Seuil, 1970, p. 41). Graphically, religious pantheism can be represented as a circle inscribed with a cross where the vertical and horizontal cosmic divine reality blurred sign of "great everything." It's the absence of a real relation between God and the world by unilaterally emphasis on divine immanence, and the existence of cosmic missing true verticality. Everything is meaningless repetition in an order "divine" inflexible, in which a man loses his personal identity and freedom, not daring to disturb something that order (cf. Dumitru Popeseu, and modern Orthodoxy, p. 183-184).
Dualistic cosmology specify mosaism, Western Christianity and other religions, the premise is the distance between God and the world, the incompatibility between spirit and matter. Unlike pantheism, where God and the world are confused, it's in the dualism of two distinct realities to separation, but a relation between what is possible. Dualistic cosmology, arranged plot by two different circles, offers several solutions to this report:
a) between vertical and horizontal cosmic divine there is a perfect externalities. It's parallel in eternity two principles, among which communication is not possible.
b) there is a relationship between the two tangent point, given the fact that God created the world.
c) Between God and the world there is an interference space, a sacred space in which the two realities are articulated without being confused. This space is the Church, "City of God" implanted in the "earthly city."
Dualist conceptions precisely distinguish between God and the world, or philosophically, between spirit and matter, but swings between considering the world (matter) is as bad and thus invariably doomed, or at least, deprived of liberty or as invariably good and autonomous from God, the cause is the same: the lack of spiritual foundation and an internal rationality of the world. Today, the first meaning of the latter left the place, which makes this mode of representation of reality may very well be called an autonomous cosmology. Modern science has resorted to Western theology separation between spirit and matter, opting for the materialistic interpretation or "naturalist" of the universe and life, everything that is making the abstraction of mind (today, as we shall see, the situation is complex). In this context, the man escapes from chaining deterministic own cosmocentrismului pantheist, but also replace God proud tiranizand world by trying to order it otherwise by technology (anthropocentrism). Cosmology is the fatal error that unilateral emphasis on divine transcendence, understood as the absence of God in His creation (cf. Dumitru Popescu, op., P. 181-183).
Cosmology panenteista beyond that philosophical namesake, which is just a more elaborate pantheism, is a synthesis of the other two cases, possible only through fidelity to divine revelation. As noted, pantheism emphasizes God's immanence unilaterally, while the dualism of divine transcendence to the world only in the first case no longer seen as the creature world, the second being seen as independent from God. Approaching antinomic relationship between God and the cosmos, its panenteismul Orthodox tradition says while divine transcendence and immanence to the world: God is above the world he created, is supraspatial and timeless, but present in all creation and movement them for purposes of default, the perpetuation of the relationship with God. As noted John Meyendorff (in Byzantine theology. Historical trends and doctrinal themes, Bucharest, 1996, p. 12), it's a theology of God's participation in the life of the world and the world to life of the Holy Trinity, which finds its classic expression Palamas in distinction between nature, people and God's uncreated energies.
Internal relationship between God and the world, loving and free time in the descent of the Godhead to the creation of fire wire and rationality theocentric uncreated energies of the world, manifested in its natural ascent to God in motion or of its creative energies, said both distance between created and uncreated, that unmistakable their properties, and their willingness to unite, to achieve 'theandric way "or cosmic scale generalization of the mystery of Christ in and through the church. Graphically, this pattern can be represented by the cosmological two concentric circles, where the vertical divine creation even beyond horizontal penetrates and fills the world without identifying with it, Christ shines in the center, represented by his cross, the axes of which joined Godhead and creation (cf. Eph 1, 7-10, 2, 14-16).
In this context, the man and the world is no longer in adversity, but to conciliate their natural movement towards God. This is why pantheistic cosmology, that God is in everything and everything is in God (cf. Acts, 17, 28, Ephesians 4 6) or can call theocentric. teonoma (cf. Dumitru Popescu, op. cit., p. 184-187).
The premise of orthodox tradition to biblical interpretation Cosmogenesis e panenteismul essay. It should be noted now that this concept offers the best solution for the relationship between man and universe, capable of promoting a mentality to overcome environmental problems.
Science and faith or how interpretation
Another necessary element of our company's determination to do the work.
I said only in terms of divine revelation has been named as possible panenteism cosmological synthesis. Cosmology is the main source of biblical and patristic conception of the world, which is claimed in the essay about the creation (Gen. 1-2), full text inspired by God and, therefore, normative for theology. This text, written around 3500 years ago, however, presents a major difficulty: expressing in terms of fallen man (Orthodox theology distinguishes between the heavenly man and the man fall, in the way, the intensity of existence) or, more precisely, of the Jews in road to the promised land rendered difficult situations at that time, the entire description is by analogy more or less relevant to contemporary man. It is an iconic language, poetic and descriptive context to be carefully and with the grace of the Holy Spirit (cf. II Peter, 1, 20-21), to be played today human comprehensible.
So, the Eastern Church's cosmology is not teonoma launches world hypotheses about the origin and movement, as happens in science, it starts from a given human and divine at the same time, the essay Bible, which even then did not ignore they engage in a dialogue with the scientific theories of cosmology.
Interesting to note is the attitude of St. Basil the Great, philosopher, scientist and theologian who, in the fourth century, he interpreted biblical essay about the creation of the world in terms of cosmological theories of his time, using or referring only to physical time, he found several contradictions that make him not be attached by any of these theories. But here's what Saint says: "Many have spoken about the nature of Greek philosophers, but none of their ideas did not remain steadfast and nerasturnata, all ideas of the ideas of the first second they broke down, so do not need me to exhibit them vanity. E-sufficient combat by others "(Homilies on Hexaemeron, 1, 2).
Regarding the way in which the Church theology proposals assume science should be remarked, once Vladimir Lossky, as "Greek Fathers cosmology necessarily reproduce the image of science in universities according to their age. This does not depreciate its own fund - called theological comments the biblical story of creation. Orthodox Church theology, soteriology forever, never never entered a deal with any attempt of synthesis of philosophy in the doctrine. (...) lacking any philosophical preference, the Church will always serve with more freedom and philosophy science, in an apologetic purpose, but she will never have the machine and changing the relative truths, appear as unalterable truth of its dogmas. Therefore, the teachings of modern cosmology will not affect the fundamental truth revealed no Church. " In this way, theology gets along well with any scientific theory about the universe, provided that the latter was not to exceed boundaries and daring to try to deny what is outside the field of vision "(mystical theology Eastern Church, Anastasia, p. 132-133).
It is a selective method, assuming a critical scientific interpretations, by the direction of St. Basil the Great in the Homily XXII by young people and, specifically, in Homilies on Hexaemeron not abdicand from Scripture or science refusing any value , a method that avoids the idea of double truth, that there is a truth of faith and one's intelligence (or the philosophy of science), but did not seek any corresponding price. The method involves selective use of scientific concepts as "vehicle" for the giving revealed in effort and in-depth understanding of its current exposure.
This is why orthodox cosmology not conflict with the scientist known as happened in the West, where theologians have seen an ancient cosmology Philosophia perennis or the last word for wagging biblical interpretation. In this context, the dispute is not with Scripture science, but a theology of Scripture understood wrong. Resolving conflict remembered today seems closer than ever, theology, on the one hand, and reviewing statements and returning to the revelation, as was expressed dogmatically follow the church in filtering inspired by the Holy Fathers, and on the other part of last century triumphalism abandoning science and opting for the "apophatic" in the moment was not satisfied with the analysis, but seeks to understand the significance of the world, the essence of mystery is created as unfathomable as that of divine beings, for sending incessantly. Tension gradually disappears while today, fizicenii at least, try a metaphysical approach that explores the reality.
Mircea Eliade, talking about what he called "Gnosis of Princeton", says "it is surprising to see physicists, especially astrophysicists and specialists of theoretical physics, reconstructing a universe in which God has his place, and the idea of cosmogony , The Creation "(Trying maze, Cluj, 1990, p. 114). In this way the scientists responsible for her attitude earlier "metaphysical blindness" of many contemporaries, seems to become a new spiritual leaven (cf. Yannaras Christ, op. Cit., P. 53). Must be noted also that the new cosmological representations and, in particular, microphysics theology offers the possibility of building a new contemplation of the world.
Short text near
Our effort will be trying to spend a fair relation between the traditional interpretation of biblical and pre current scientific theories of cosmology. Even though it may seem a unilateral selection of patristic texts, the author decided to give it the old cosmologies suggestions to highlight insights of the Fathers inspiratele consistent over time with today's science data. In other words, you decontextualized traditional patristic cosmology, keeping the elements capable of promoting a dialogue with current science. This spirit is taking comments on the essay Byzantine Bible, the author relates incessantly.
Text structure is very complex. Although at first sight is a history of creation, the essay does not propose a biblical chronology, but a focused and functional perspective. The order of "days" is more logical, following the plan and to affirm God's direct involvement in bringing the universe into existence and in the organization. This is why the Fathers insisted that "it is God who makes them and pretend it all and arranges them (they ordinates, on) all by His will" (St. John Chrysostom, op. Cit., II, 2 and 3, see St. John Damas-chin, Dogmatics, II, 6). St. Basil the Great says more precisely that point: "you must not talk of making heaven and earth as a preparation made of themselves, as some have imagined, but as a work-and is due to God "(op. cit., I, 1).
Concentric perspective is evident in the progressive specification of the theme. From the statement that God created the universe, heaven and earth, Scripture deals only visible cosmos, then our planet, life and, ultimately, the human consciousness sum of creation and life, as in Chapter the second man to be proposed as an archetype of all life on Earth (see issue "distinctions" in Saint Maximus the Confessor, Ambigua 106).
It should be noted, first, that this enriched perspective, culminating in man, is updated scientific so-called anthropic principle, according to which the universe was "programmed" to be compatible with man (cf. Hubert Reeves in Azur Patience - cosmic evolution, Humanitas, Bucharest. 1093, p. 170, John D. Barrow, The origin of the universe, Humanitas, p. 25 and 110, Jean-Pierre Longchamp, Science et croyance, detaching from Brouwer, 1992, p. 177-179 ). On the other hand, the same perspective precludes any definitive statement of theology in terms of extraterrestrial life: Scripture does not allow any assertion or refute it. Thirdly, Scripture concentrismul explain the absence of problems in cosmology Church "inflationary universe" or expanding (although one can guess, with something positive, commenting "on" the first creation), which allowed the invasion of Greek thought on world issues in buildings less true revelation of theologians.
Also, that's intentional disclosure of the divine plan of the world or logical construction of the world, not a timeline that could be interpreted and by chance, resulting in duplication and "days" of creation:
I light. - IV dome
Earth's primordial ocean and the atmosphere II - V aquatic creatures. And airlines
Land and vegetation III - VI land animals and man
The sequence of "days" indicate not a strict policy for development in the history of creation, but the introduction of elements to the extent that they come true function, each step being the prerequisite is in the latter. In this sense, each "day" is "Morning" from the previous (ie, exceeds the increased materiality of the world God's plan), but "evening" for the following (and which exceeds a new statement of intent God). It must be said again that the biblical creation of a logical plan is confirmed by current scientific cosmology, which speaks of a purpose, a programming and a draft of the universe, all by sending a designer (Jean-Pierfe he Longchamp, op. cit., p. 176-177).
These elements show that the entire essay is built on biblical symbolic images, in analogies from everyday experience of Jews from the time of Moses (cf. Saint John Chrysostom, op. Cit., II, 2). Even the term "day" is used to designate a time not twenty-four hours, as long believed, but by comparison with the "day job" to indicate the active presence of God: whatever exists is It worked! E imotivul strongest for billions of years to include science has not scare him a theologian and not look like a lack of devotion to the almighty, divine, "working day" speaks of a God who assert dignity and strength through chenoza, by lowering the possibilities of creation, as it had done for the salvation.
Fapul it's the "working day" and indicated the structure is almost identical to the six stages of creation, God commanded through His word and all are powerful, the Creator assess their work, seeing that she was "good" / "beautiful" , Or thought about it comply; creature gets a name, that shall show the meaning and function, and where living beings, they are blessed, that receive power through the development and replication of "participation" in the power of the Creator (this blessing has been addressed with Certainly, the entire creation, but the pace of movement, more slowly, hardly leaves her complaint); end "and was evening and the morning were," suggesting the dynamic development of the universe according to divine plan drawn up before the world was. It's a "work" through speech, pointing aiming beautiful world, shaping of its artistic it (for the Holy Fathers, God is a technetes, ARTIFEX, artist par excellence): "The world is a work of art to be put before all seen and contemplated, and the wisdom to make known its Creator "(St. Basil the Great, op cit., I, 7). Very interesting that scientists now use category and aesthetics, of beauty to represent their logic universe (Jean-Pierre Longchamp, op. Cit., P. 175).
Structural complexity of the text tells us "not to exceed our measure," because "it is impossible for man to know God's perfect creation (St. John Chrysostom, op. Cit., II, 2). Any interpretation of biblical essay about creation, even by means of contemporary science, apophatic attitude requires a reservation (cf. Saint Maximus the Confessor, ambiguous, 79a and 79b). Therefore, neither the author's effort is not viewed as a haughty attempt to say the last word in interpreting the biblical text about the creation of the world.
The paper begins with a biblical general statement: "In the beginning God created the heaven / heavens and the earth" (Genesis, 1, 1). The sentence contains a variety of information. St. Basil distinguishes several meanings of "beginning" or origin of speaking time as a dimension of spatializarii, widen the cosmos (so confirmed by contemporary science, for comparison, see John D. Barrow, op. Cit., P 103) or a "pretimp" the first creation of God or of eternity, "beginning" par excellence (cf. op. cit., 1, 5 and 6). Most performers connects this "beginning" of that of John, 1, 1-3. However, it is obvious that the world has a beginning of existence, it's not coetema of God and being created, it's an extension of the divine essence or deity, that emanatiste systems (veins, Gnostic, Origenist). The existence of the world is not necessary, that God is not determined by something to create, the universe is the work of rational liberty, the will of God.
In "Introductory Study" in Romanian translation of works atanasiene (Collection Fathers and ecclesiastical writers, vol 15, p. 15), insists that the Holy Father Athanasius Dumitru Staniloae introduced for the first time a clear distinction between the theologically birth, so that relationship between Father and Son eternal, and making that bring the world into existence.
To show the ontological difference between Creator and creation, it was later emphasized that the world was created "from scratch" (cf. II Maccabees, 7, 28), statement of great importance to assess the relationship between God and the cosmos, in this respect, Saint Athanasius the Great observed that "others, among which is the Plato, the Greeks at large, say that God made them all from pre-existing and uncreated matter (...). Having said that, they do not understand that bind God's weakness. For if the cause is not itself material, but makes things a pre-existing matter, he is weak "(Treatise on the Incarnation of the Word; cf. Saint John Chrysostom, op. cit., II, 4 ). It is evident that ancient cosmology, and contemporary face the same problems in articulating the idea of mobility cosmos divine omnipotence is owing to the design and building of a transcendent Creator, is surprising, therefore, many physicists today option for creation of anything similar solutions (cf . John D. Barrow, op. cit., p. 119-121, and Stephen W. Hawking, Brief History of Time. From the Big Bang to Black Holes, the second edition of Humanitas, p. 23 and 25).
The origin of the world in divine creative act involves its fundamental unit (because they are all reducible to a single term, "creative," says St. Athanasius against the Arians in the second word, 58-59), beyond the diversity or complexity: the world is while "heaven and earth." The Symbol of Faith, the Church interprets the "sky" as invisible or intelligible aspect of creation, "earth" representing its appearance seen or sensitive. Disclosure of this complexity in the drive beyond the dualism so that said distance between sensible and intelligible, between spirit and matter, and claiming monism. is the existence or spirit, or matter. Correspondence and convergence of the two aspects of creation is based on their common spiritual or those seen in the fact that it is based on the unseen (cf. St. Basil, op. Cit., I, 5). For contemporary science, cosmic unity is beyond doubt. A proof is really very important cosmic motion isotropy (cf. John D. Barrow, op. Cit., P. 29-30). Interesting to compare the double movement of the universe (expansion and intrication), expression of this unit, the images used by St. Athanasius (orchestral polyphony cosmos as the Logos) and St. Maxim (dance around the cosmos as the Logos, manifesting diastolic -systolic-extensive and intensive).
There is a paradox of unity in diversity, evident in the issue of the relationship between part and whole. Thus, although the whole is greater than the sum of its parts, any part of it contains and reflects the whole. For example, man's hand, and synthesis in the small world.
Attention now focuses on Scripture "earth", the visible aspect of creation (Gen. 1, 2). "Unseen and netocmit" (or "netocmit and void"), "earth" is a "deep" dark mystery of unorganized yet created essence, which portrays parents as being the potential of the universe, the "primordial matter" created following the being organized by the wise Creator. We can not speak but only matter in a very broad sense.
The text introduces another analogy, that of "water" indicating inconsistencies and internal dynamics of this "earth" original. St. John Chrysostom great surprise, noting that "water was full of life energy", "water was not a mere water, but one that was in motion, which raged and included everything" (op cit ., III, 1 and 2). In turn, St. Basil speaks of a "spiritual light" of which the universe was created (op. cit., I, 5), because most holy fathers share the same opinion (in fact, this concept is evident in the Romanian mentality in the cosmos it's "world", meaning light). This complex and indefinite tense today confirmed physical theories that were seeded the reasons of all things, was still controlled by the Spirit of God (the symbol of faith. "Maker Lord of life"), which "carry over water" or, as St. Basil, "and gave life heated water hen the image, which empowers life and hatching eggs (...), that is preparing for the birth waters of life (op. cit., II, 6). It is a sign that further development of the cosmos was achieved through the combined energies of Spirit and "water."
Have been introduced so far two of the persons of the Trinity: "God" (Father) and "Spirit of God." The text continues with "And God said," words that recognize the ecclesial interpretation, comparing the prologue of John's Gospel, the person of the Logos, the Son of God who is eternally in the bosom of the Father and that all were created. In this way, the involvement of the entire Trinity is revealed in the act of bringing the world to the existence or the fact that after the expression commonly used by the Fathers, the Father created everything through the Son in the Holy Spirit. Tanta important this statement is overwhelming. Bringing it into existence by the Logos and Spirit, the Father established the rational world (that etched the Logos) and spiritual (the seal of the Spirit). Logical and spiritual foundation of the world, confirmed the physics of our century (which speaks of a substrate and relational-band energy in the cosmos), reveals the depth, value and meaning of creation theocentric, not only showing its movement paradox of diversification-unification, expansion- step, upward or vertical direction but also the cosmic process.
The world appears as the words of Father Dumitru Staniloae as plasticized rationality, because any act of God is the creator and developer. Bringing the existence of every creature is synonymous with sharing of information, the manifestation of a thought or a divine reasons that pre-exist the world, but is not forever, but developed into a "pretimp" the divine Logos. Logos If you would not be rationale thought or paradigms (models) creatures or creation was a necessity for God, by linking these reasons the divine essence (as in Origenism) or not there would have been an internal relationship between God and the world (cosmology as automatic). For the Eastern Fathers, the antinomy, the reasons are both in the Logos of God, and how things have a dynamic that is being even uncreated energies of the Godhead, making an internal connection between the Logos and creation. In this way, only because it has a rational point can be known throughout the world through this man has access to the ultimate rationale. In other words, the true interpretation of the world makes light of the Logos and Creator of the universe (cf. Saint Maxim, op. Cit., 13).
"Earth" initial (visible universe), described as "deep" dark and "water" in the Holy Spirit work was organized in six "days" (rounds). These steps indicate a movement, a development of the cosmos, as stated in its evolution, but not a random dynamic (subject to chance) or only some immanent determinations (as in the Roman Catholic concept of "second causes", typical for a cosmology